Permafrost is loosely defined as soil and/or rock that remains frozen for more than two years. In the Fairbanks area, permafrost tends to be discontinuous and is concentrated primarily on north-sloping hills and in lower elevations with heavy ground cover. Big trees do not guarantee the absence of permafrost; it might just mean that permanently frozen ground or ice is down far enough that the soils in that spot can support a larger root system. The only way to be certain of what the ground contains is to have a soils test drilling done.
With permafrost, the safest bet is to it avoid it altogether and move to another piece of land. This is easier said than done, particularly because of the scarcity of buildable land near Fairbanks that is affordable. If you decide to build on permafrost, be as strategic as possible. Smaller and simpler structures will tend to fare better than larger, more complicated ones.
Minimal site disturbance is the accepted practice. The trees and the ground cover are your best friend. They protect and insulate the ground from the heat of the summer. A great example is the green moss you find on many of the shaded low-level areas in Fairbanks. Moss has a high insulating value, and in many cases if you dig down a couple of feet, the ground might still be frozen in the middle of summer.
Strategies for construction on permafrost include:
• As a general rule, the organic layer of ground cover provides insulation and should not be removed, as this will increase the risk of thawing any frozen ground underneath.
• Elevate and properly insulate the bottom of your house to prevent heat losses through the floor system from reaching the ground underneath, which can lead to thawing.
• In post and pad construction, use a thick gravel pad that is significantly wider than the house itself (also insulated if possible) to stabilize the ground and spread building loads.
• If wood or steel piles or helical piers are used, they must be installed to a depth that will both support the structure and resist frost jacking from seasonal ground movement.
• Cut trees sparingly to maximize site shading (while permitting for a fire break).
• Build a wrap-around porch, which will help shade the ground around and underneath the house.
• Incorporate large roof overhangs to shed water away from the house and provide shade.
• Install gutters and manage site drainage well away from the house.
• Retain an engineer familiar with local soils conditions to assist in designing a foundation system that will adequately and safely support your home on the soils specific to your site.
• Septic systems also must be engineered to function on permafrost, and remember that conventional systems might risk thawing the ground.
Permafrost Technology Foundation case studies: http://www.cchrc.org/permafrost-technology-foundation-library
U.S. Permafrost Association website: www.uspermafrost.org/education/PEEP/ptf-manuals.shtml
UAF Cooperative Extension Service online publications at www.uaf.edu/ces.